The Involvement of Indonesian Civil Society Organizations in the Policy-Making Process of Migrant Workers Protection in ASEAN

Iyan Septiyana
| Abstract views: 1499 | views: 687


Indonesia is biggest sending country of migrant worker in the region. half of the number of Indonesian worker is undocumented migrant workers that vulnerable to be a victim of worker rights or human rights violation. The absent of regional policy of migrant worker protection in ASEAN, makes the issue get less attention in ASEAN multilateral framework. Then in 2007 the first regional policy of migrant worker appeared in ASEAN, in the process it involves CSOs from all ASEAN member states. While ASEAN itself is regional organization that conduct state-centric system which position state as a leading actor. This condition bring up a question how the involvement of Indonesian CSO in the policy-making process of migrant workers protection in ASEAN. Through the perspective of critical theory of Habermas, there is a space in the public sphere that can be used by CSO to emancipate migrant workers by conducting dialogue by establish and join network that is HRWG and TFAMW, then CSO can involves in the ASEAN policy making process of migrant workers protection.


Indonesia; CSO; ASEAN, Migrant worker policy; political participation

Full Text:



Acharya, A. (2001). Constructing a Security Community in Southeast Asia: ASEAN and the problem of regional order (First). London: Routledge.

Aldaba, F. T. (2014). Global and Asian Perspective on International Migration. In G. Battistella (Ed.) (pp. 197–224). New York: Springer.

Ang, A., Baruah, N., Imson, M., & Lautenschlager. (2015). Progress of the implementation of Recommendations adopted at the 3rd – 6th ASEAN Forum on Migrant Labour meetings: Background paper to the 7th AFML. Bangkok.

Anthony, M. C. (2005). Regional Security in Southeast Asia: Beyond the ASEAN Way. Singapore: ISEAS Publication.

Antlöv, H., Ibrahim, R., & Tujil, P. van. (2005). Ngo Governance and Accountability in Indonesia: Challenges in A Newly Democratizing Country. ICNL. Retrieved from accountability in Indonesia July 05 version.pdf

ASEAN-Information-Center. (2016). Between the people-oriented and people-centered ASEAN Community? Retrieved from

ASEAN-Secretariat. (2007). ASEAN Document Series 2006.

ASEAN-Secretariat. (2009). Summary Record of the 2nd ASEAN Forum on Migrant Labour.

ASEAN-Secretariat. (2017a). ASEAN Engagement with Entities. Jakarta.

ASEAN-Secretariat. (2017b, November). ASEAN Leaders commit to safeguard the rights of migrant workers. Retrieved from

ASEAN. (n.d.). History the Founding of ASEAN. Retrieved March 20, 2019, from

ASEAN. (2012a). DECLARATION OF ASEAN CONCORD II (BALI CONCORD II). Retrieved March 20, 2019, from

ASEAN. (2012b). The Declaration of ASEAN Concord, Bali, Indonesia, 24 February 1976. Retrieved March 20, 2019, from

B. Guy Peters, & Borras, S. (2010). Governance and European Integration. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Bakry, U. S. (2016). Metode Penelitian Hubungan Internasional. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Battistella, G. (2014). Asian Perspective on International Migration. Springer.

Benson, R. (2009). Shaping the Public Sphere: Habermas and Beyond. The American Sociologist, 175–197.

Berg, B. L. (2001). Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

Börzel, T. A., & Hüllen, V. van. (2015). Governance Transfer by Regional Organizations: Patching Together a Global Script. In T. A. B. V. van Hüllen (Ed.) (First, pp. 3–22). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Budd, J. M. (2012). Critical Theory dalam The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. (L. M. Given, Ed.). Thosand Oaks: SAGE Publication: SAGE Publication, Inc.

Burke, A. (2008). An Introduction to International Relations Australian Persepective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Buttigieg, J. A. (2009). Perspective on Gramsci: Politics, Culture and Social Theory. In J. Francese (Ed.). New York: Ro.

Catatan Akhir Tahun LBH Jakarta 2017: Redupnya Api Reformasi. (2017).

Chandra, A. C. (2009). Civil Society in Search of an Alternative Regionalism in ASEAN. International Institute for Sustainable Development.

Charanpal S. Bal, & Gerard, K. (2017). ASEAN’s governance of migrant worker rights. Third World Quarterly.

Chavez, J. J. (2015). Transnational Social Movements in ASEAN Policy Advocacy: The Case of Regional Migrants’ Rights Policy. UNRISD. Retrieved from$file/Chavez.pdf

Chavez, J. J. (2007). Social Policy in ASEAN: The Prospects for Integrating Migrant Labour Rights and Protection. Global Social Policy, SAGE.

Chernoff, F. (2007). Theory and Metatheory in International Relations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chheang, V. (2015). Migrant Workers in a People-Centered ASEAN Community and ASEAN-Japan Cooperation. Japan Center for International Exchane.

Collins, A. (2008). A People-Oriented ASEAN: A Door Ajar or Closed for Civil Society Organizations? Contemporary Southeast Asia, 30(2), 313–331.

Crawford, N. C. (2009). Critical Theorist and International Relations. In Jenny Edkins & N. Vaughan-Williams (Eds.) (pp. 187–198). New York: Routledge.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitavie, and Mixed Methods Approaches (4th ed.). London: SAGE Publication Ltd.

Culla, A. S. (2006). Rekonstruksi Civil Society: Wacana dan Aksi Ornop di Indonesia. Jakarta: Pustaka LP3ES Indonesia.

Elemia, C. (2017). Undocumented migrant workers: Hidden and helpless in ASEAN. Retrieved from

Fenny Sumardiani. (2014). Peran Serikat Buruh Migran Indonesia dalam Melindungi Hak Tenaga Kerja Indonesia di Luar Negeri. Pandecta, 9(2).

Ferreira, M. F. (2017). International Relations Theory. In Stephen McGlenchey Rosie Walters & C. Scheinpflug (Eds.) (pp. 49–55). Bristol: E-International Relations Publishing.

Francese, J. (2010). Perspective on Gramsci: Politics, Culture and Social Theory. In J. Francese (Ed.). New York: Routledge.

Geiger, A. Y. (2015). Regional Frameworks for Managing Migration and the Role of Civil Society Organizations. Japan Center for International Exchange.

Gerard, K. (2013). From the ASEAN People’s Assembly to the ASEAN Civil Society Conference: the boundaries of civil society advocacy. Contemporary Politics, 19(4), 411–426.

Gerard, K. (2014). ASEAN’s Engagement of Civil Society Regulating Dissent. New York: palgrave Macmillan.

Ghaus-Pasha, A. (2014). Role of Civil Society Organization in Governance. In 6th Global Forum on Reinverting Government towards Participatory and Transparency Governance.

Goodman, J. (2008). an Introduction to International Relations Australian Persepective. In Richard Devetak Anthony Burke & J. George (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Habermas, J. (1991). The Structural Transformation of Public Sphere. Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Habermas, J. (1996). Between Facts and Norms. Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Hadiwinata., Bob S. (2003). Politics of NGOs in Indonesia : Developing Democracy and Managing a Movement RoutledgeCurzon Research on Southeast Asia. London: Routledge-Curzon.

Hadiwinata, Bob Sugeng. (2017). Studi dan Teori Hubungan Internasional: Arus Utama, Alternatif, dan Reflektivis. Jakarta: Yayayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.

Haliim, W. (2016). Demokrasi Deliberatif Indonesia: Konsep Partisipasi Masyarakat dalam Membentuk Demokrasi dan Hukum yang Responsif.

Hays, J. (2015). 1997-98 ASIAN FINANCIAL CRISIS IN INDONESIA: Poor Indonesians and the Asian Financial Crisis in Indonesia. Retrieved from

Howe, B. and, & Park, M. J. (2017). The Evolution of the “ASEAN Wayâ€: Embracing Human Security Perspectives. Asia-Pacific Social Science Review, 16, 1–15. Retrieved from

HRWG. (2017). Evaluasi Rekomanedasi AFML (ASEAN Forum on Migrant Labour). Jakarta: HRWG.

Hsien-Li, T. (2011). The ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights: Institutionalising Human Rights in Southeast Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Igarashi, S. (2011). The New Regional Order and Transnasional Civil Society in Southeast Asia: Focusing on Alternative Regionalism from below in the Process of Building the ASEAN Community. World Political Science Review, 7(1).

ILO. (2008, March). the 301st of ILO Bodies’ Report Agenda. Retrieved from

ILO. (2012). the 5th AFML Recommendation.

ILO. (2013a). Background paper : Progress on the implementation of the recommendations adopted at the 3rd and 4th ASEAN Forum on Migrant Labour. In ILO.

ILO. (2013b). the 6th AFML Recommendation.

ILO. (2014a). the 7th AFML Recommendation.

ILO. (2014b). The ASEAN Forum on Migrant Labour Background Information Booklet / Tripartite Action for the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers in the ASEAN Region (ASEAN TRIANGLE project) ; ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok. Retrieved from

ILO. (2015a). the 8th AFML Recommendation.

ILO. (2015b). The ASEAN Forum on Migrant Labour (AFML): background information booklet / Tripartite Action for the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers in the ASEAN Region (ASEAN TRIANGLE project) ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok.

ILO. (2016). the 9th AFML Reco.

ILO. (2017). the 10th AFML Recommendation.

Irianto;, S., & Truong, T.-D. (2013). Migration, Gender, and Social Justice: Perspective on Human Insecurity. New York: Springer.

Johnson, P. (2006). Habermas: Rescuing the Public Sphere. New York: Routledge.

Jones;, D. M., & Smith, M. L. R. (2006). ASEAN and East Asian International Relations: Regional Delusion. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Kellner, D. (2014). Reimagining Public Space: The Frankfurt School in the 21st Century. In Boros & Glass (Eds.) (pp. 20–21). New York: Palgrave Macmilan.

KEMLU-RI. (2015). Ayo Kenali ASEAN. Jakarta.

Kjell A. Eliassen, & Arnesen, C. B. (2007). European Union and New Regionalism Regional Actors and Global Governance in a Post-Hegemonic Era. In M. Telò (Ed.). Burlington: Ashgate.

Kusuma, A. J., York, M. R., & Wibowo, R. H. (2015). Violence against Indonesian Migrant Workers-A Causal Analysis. Jurnal Hubungan Internasional, 4.

Kuwado, F. J. (2016). Hari Buruh di Indonesia, dari Rezim Soeharto sampai Era Jokowi Artikel ini telah tayang di dengan judul “Hari Buruh di Indonesia, dari Rezim Soeharto sampai Era Jokowi.†Retrieved from

Larga, R., Tunon, M., & Baruah, N. (2013). Background Paper: Progress on the implementation of the recommendations adopted at the 3rd and 4th ASEAN Forum on Migrant Labour. Bangkok: ILO Regional Office for Asia.

Lean, Lim Lin; Hoong, P. C. T. (1983). Migrant Workers in Asean: A Review of Issues and Implications for Government Policies. International Migration, 21(2), 277–287.

Liow, J. C. (2017). Asia’s Southern Tier dalam International Relations and Asia’s Southern Tier. Singapore: Asan-Palgrave Macmillan.

Margaret E. Keck, & Sikkink, K. (1999). Transnational advocacy networks in international and regional politics. Blacwell Publisher.

Margaret P Karns, Karen A Mingst, & Stilles, K. W. (2015). International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance (Third). Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publisher, Inc.

Martyn, H. L. (2018). Voices of Indonesian Migrant Workers at Home and Abroad. Canadian Center of Science and Education: Asian Social Science, 14(18).

Migrant-Care. (2009). Sikap Migrant Care Terhadap Problematika Buruh Migran Indonesia. Migrant-Care.

Min-Hyung, K. (2011). Theorizing ASEAN Integration. Journal Asian Perspective, Vol 35.

Margiansyah, D. (2018). Kekuatan Sosial Hukum: Menundukkan Negara Kekuatan Besar Melalui Institusi Multilateral Independen. Jurnal Penelitian Politik, 15 (1), 115–125.

Mitzen, J. (2005). Reading Habermas in Anarchy: Multilateral Diplomacy and Global Public Spheres. American Political Science Review, 99(3), 401–417.

Munarman. (n.d.). Rekonstruksi Civil Society: Wacana dan Aksi Ornop di Indonesia (p. xxxiiii). Jakarta: Pustaka LP3ES Indonesia.

Nahar;, F. H., & Arshad, M. N. M. (2017). Effects of remittances on poverty reduction: The Case of Indonesia. Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business, 32(3), 163 – 177.

Neuman, W. L. (2006). Social Research Methods Qualitative and Quantitave Approaches. Boston: Pearson and AB.

No Title. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Nuaraeni, et all. (2010). Regionalisme dalam Studi Hubungan Internasional. Yogyakarta: Pusta.

Organization, I. L. (2016). Migration in ASEAN in figures: The International Labour Migration Statistics (ILMS) Database in ASEAN. Bangkok.

Patricia J Campbell, Aran MacKinnon, & Stevens, C. R. (2010). An Introduction to Global Studies. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.

Peoples, C. (2009). Critical Theorist and International Relations. In N. Crawford N. C. Jenny Edkins & Vaughan-Williams (Ed.) (pp. 7–18). Routledge.

Perbudakan Modern atas buruh migran Indonesia. (2015). Retrieved from

Robert W. Cox, & Sinclair, T. J. (1996). Approaches to World Order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rother;, S., & Piper, N. (2014). Alternative Regionalism from Below: Democratizing ASEAN’s Migration Governance. International Migration, Wiley, 53(3).

Rother, S. (2015). Democratizing ASEAN through “Alternative Regionalism� The ASEAN Civil Society Conference and the ASEAN Youth Forum. ASIEN, 136, 98–119.

Rother, S. (2018). ASEAN Forum on Migrant Labour: A space for civil society in migration governance at the regional level? Asia Pacific Viewpoint.

Rozman;, G., & Liow, J. C. (2017). International Relations and Asia’s Southern Tier (p. 4). Singapore: Asan-Palgrave Macmillan.

Rüland;, J., & Jetschke, A. (2008). 40 years of ASEAN: perspectives, performance and lessons for change. Routledge: The Pacific Review, 21(4), 397–409.

Rüland, J. (2000). ASEAN and the Asian crisis: theoretical implications and practical consequences for Southeast Asian regionalism. The Pacifc Review, Vol. 13 No. 3, 13(3), 421–451.

Rüland, J. (2011). Southeast Asian Region and Global Governance: “Multilateral Utility†or "Hedging Utility? Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 33(1), 83-112.

Rupert, M. (2009). Critical Theorist and International Relations (pp. 176–186). Ro.

Salvador Santino F. Regilme, J. (2016). Habermasian Thinking on Civil Society and the Public Sphere in the Age of Globalization. Perspectives on Political Science.

Santoso, A. (2013). A two level sociological institutionalist critique of migrant workers protection: a state and regional analysis of Indonesia and the Philippines. University of Nottingham., Nothingham, UK. Retrieved from

Sayono;, J., Wahyu;, I., & Ayundasari, L. (2018). Migrant workers and socio-economic changes. Masyarakat, Kebudayaan Dan Politik Vol. 31, Issue 2, 2018, Page 176-189, 31(2), 176–189.

SBMI. (2014). Catatan Akhir Tahun 2014: Rekam Proses Pembelaan Kasus Buruh Migran dan Advokasi Kebijakan. (SBMI, Ed.).

Secretariat, A. (2009). ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community Blueprint. Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat.

Simon, S. W. (2002). Evaluating Track II approaches to security diplomacy in the Asia-Pacific: the CSCAP experience. The Pacifc Review, 15(2), 167–200.

Slavery at sea: human traficking in the fishing industry exposed. (2015, June). Retrieved from

Solidaritas-Perempuan. (2015). Catatan Penanganan Kasus Solidaritas Perempuan Menggugat Tanggung Jawab Negara Atas Perlindungan Hak Buruh Migran Perempuan dan Anggota Keluarganya.

Solidaritas-Perempuan. (2017). Kaleidoskop Kekerasan dan Pelanggaran Hak Perempuan Buruh Migran 2016: Menagih Tanggung Jawab Negara Dalam Melindungi Perempuan Buruh Migran. Jakarta.

Spång, M. (2017). Emancipation, Democracy and the Modern Critique of Law. (G. Browning, Ed.). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Stahl, C. W. (1991). South-North Migration in the Asia-Pacific Region. Internationl Migration (Vol. 29).

Sthor, R. (2013). Toward a Global Organizational Public Sphere: Non-governmental Organizing and Democratic Legitimacy in a Postmodern World. The Graduate College at the University of Nebraska, Nebraska.

TFA. (2009, February). Statement to ASEAN S-G Surin Pitsuwan.

TFAMW. (2006a). Final Singapore Consulation Repor.

TFAMW. (2006b). Final Singapore Consultation Report: First Civil Society Organization-Trade Union Drafting the ASEAN Framework Instrument on the Rights of Migrant Worker.

TFAMW. (2007a). Final Bangkok Statement TF on Asian MWs and Thai & Mekong Partners. Bangkok.

TFAMW. (2007b). Final Statement CSO-TU Dialogue: TFAMW Consultation workshop on protection and promotion of the rights of migrant workers, “forging and strengthening linkages among Migrant NGOs and Trade Unions.â€

TFAMW. (2007c). Statement on the ASEAN Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers. Retrieved from

TFAMW. (2008a). Final Statemet Cambodia National Consultation.

TFAMW. (2008b). FINAL Vietnam National Consultation Statement. Hanoi.

TFAMW. (2008c). Full Meeting Report SEARCH-UNIFEM-Task Force.

TFAMW. (2009). Civil Society Proposal: ASEAN Framework Instrument on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers.

TFAMW. (2011, October). the 4th ASEAN Forum on Migant Labor. Retrieved from

TIFA-Foundation. (2018). “Perlindungan lemah, kasus buruh migran makin tinggi.†Retrieved July 3, 2019, from

Uhlin, A. (2016). Civil Society and Regional Governance: the ADB and ASEAN. London: Lexiton Books.

UNDESA. (2017). International Migration Report 2017: Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/404).

Weber, M. (2008). Constructivism and Critical Theory. In Richard Devetak Anthony Burke & J. George (Eds.) (pp. 96–108). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wells-Dang, A., & Wells-Dang, G. (2011). Civil Society in ASEAN: a healthy development? The Lancet, (377).

Wunderlich, J. U. (2007). Regionalism, Globalisation and International Order. Hampshire, England: Ashgate.

Yazid, S. (2013). Indonesia’s Civil Society in the Age of Democratization: NGO-Responses on the Issue of Labor Migration. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.

Yazid, S. (2015). Indonesian Labour Migration: Identifying the Women. Jurnal Global & Strategis, 9(1).

Yin, R. K. (2015). Studi Kasus Desain dan Metoder. Jakarta: RajaGrafindo Persada.

Zygadło, P. (2018). Cultural Particularism and Intercultural Communication: The Case of Chinese Face. IAFOR Journal of Cultural Studies, 3(2), 65–77.

Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


  • There are currently no refbacks.