Understanding Ageing Population Across Countries: Lesson learned for Indonesia

Marya Yenita Sitohang
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The increase in life expectancy, primarily due to improved healthcare, is leading to a significant demographic shift in many countries to an ageing population. This phenomenon presents various challenges. Using a scoping review, this study delves into the implications of an ageing population in high-income countries like Finland, Germany, and Italy, as well as in Indonesia, which is just beginning to experience this transition. The findings highlight a shift in health concerns from communicable diseases to non-communicable and delayed degenerative diseases in ageing populations, including ischemic heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, low back pain, falls, Alzheimer's and other dementias as the cause of death and disability in the population. This paper found that the health condition has impacted some aspects including health and longevity, housing issues among the elderly, finances and retirement across countries with ageing population. To address these challenges, countries with ageing populations have implemented various policies. For instance, Finland has established guidelines and funding for elderly healthcare in municipalities, ensuring appropriate medical attention. In addition, pension systems and financial literacy initiatives have been introduced in some countries to support the ageing populace financially. Moreover, home-based geriatric care services in Finland and Germany enable elderly to age comfortably in their own homes. These policy implementations offer valuable insights for countries like Indonesia to better prepare themselves for the social, health, and economic implications associated with an ageing demographic. This comparative analysis serves as a crucial foundation for formulating effective policies tailored to the unique needs of ageing societies worldwide.


ageing population; health; retirement; policies

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