The Influence of Family Wealth and Parent Education Level on Students’ Reading Literacy

Abu Nawas
| Abstract views: 1750 | views: 497


This study aims to examine the influence of family background factors in terms of family wealth and parent education levels on students’ reading performance in Indonesia. The study utilises secondary data from the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015 for Indonesia, in which 6513 students participated. This also specifically highlights the analysis of family wealth and parent education levels in possibly predicting the students’ reading literacy in Indonesia. In analysing the data, a quantitative approach was used which utilised statistically different analysis such as t-test, one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA, correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using WesVar version 5.1 software. 


The result found there were significant different reading scores between students from different family wealth and parent education levels. The students from high family wealth performed better than they with middle and low wealthy. Likewise, the children with highly educated mother and father had high scores than students whose parents had low and did not complete primary school. Moreover, the result of correlation and regression analysis revealed that all predictor variables, WEALTH, MISCED and FISCED, significantly associate and predict better reading literacy performance of 15-year-old students in Indonesia for PISA 2015 survey. Therefore, the implications of the study highlight opportunities to reform educational policies through data and evidence.  



Family wealth; parent education; reading literacy; Indonesia

Full Text:



Aditomo, A., & Hasugian, E. J. (2018). Indonesian adolescents’ EFL reading comprehension: gender differences and the influence of parental background. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8(2), 325-335.

Aramide, K. A. (2015). Effect of parental background factors on reading habits of secondary school students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Information Science and Technology, 8(1), 70-80.

Ardila, A., Rosselli, M., Matute, E., & Guajardo, S. (2005). The influence of the parents' educational level on the development of executive functions. Developmental neuropsychology, 28(1), 539-560.

Bojovic, M. (2010). Reading skills and reading comprehension in English for Specific Purposes (ESP). International Language, 1(1), 1-5.

Cheng, & Kaplowitz. (2016). Family economic status, cultural capital, and academic achievement: The case of Taiwan. International Journal of Educational Development, 49, 271-278. doi:

Chiu, C., & Ko, H. (2008). Parental factors related to children’s reading: Evidence from comparing transnational marriage families and local families. Paper presented at the 3rd IEA International Research Conference, Taipei, Chinese Taipei.

Choudhry, G. H., & Valliant, R. (2002). WesVar: Software for complex survey data analysis. Paper presented at the Statistics Canada Symposium, Canada.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design; Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches (4th Edition ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE Publication.

Dawkins, L. D. (2017). Factors Influencing Student Achievement in Reading. (Doctoral Thesis, Walde University), United States. Retrieved from

Drajea, A. J. (2015). The Influence of Parental Education and Literacy Skill Levels on Children's Acheivement in Primary School, Moyo District, Rural Uganda. (Doctoral Thesis, Trinity College) Dublin, Retrieved from

Duncan, G. J., & Murnane, R. J. (2011). Whither opportunity?: Rising inequality, schools, and children's life chances: Russell Sage Foundation.

Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. Los Angeles: Sage Publications Inc.

Hanemann, U. (2015). Lifelong literacy: Some trends and issues in conceptualising and operationalising literacy from a lifelong learning perspective. International Review of Education, 61(3), 295-326.

Hemmerechts, K., Agirdag, O., & Kavadias, D. (2016). The relationship between parental literacy involvement, socio-economic status and reading literacy. Educational Review, 69(1), 85-101.

Hodge, K. A., & Lear, J. L. (2011). Employment skills for 21st century workplace: The gap between faculty and student perceptions. Journal of Career and Technical Education, 26(2), 28-41.

Imam, O. A. (2016). Effects of reading skills on students’ performance in science and mathematics in public and private secondary schools. Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn), 10(2), 177-186.

Johari, A., Tom, A. A., Morni, A., & Sahari, S. H. (2013). Students’ reading practices and environments. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(1), 17-28.

Kennedy, E., Dunphy, E., Dwyer, B., Hayes, G., McPhillips, T., Marsh, J., . . . Shiel, G. (2012). Literacy in Early Childhood and Primary Education (3-8 Years). National Council for Curriculum and Assessment, 1-412.

Lynch, J., Anderson, J., Anderson, A., & Shapiro, J. (2006). Parents' beliefs about young children's literacy development and parents' literacy behaviors. Reading Psychology, 27(1), 1-20.

MoEC. (2016). Peringkat dan Capaian PISA Indonesia Mengalami Peningkatan [PISA Indonesia's Rank and Achievement Improved]. Retrieved from

Mohamed, A. A., Radzuan, N. R. M., Kassim, H., & Ali, M. M. A. (2014). Conceptualizing English workplace communication needs of professional engineers: The challenges for English language tertiary educators. Selangor Business Review (SBR), 1(1), 1-9.

Nicholas, K., Fletcher, J., & Parkhill, F. (2013). Supporting 11 to 13 year old students' reading: perceptions of parents. International Journal About Parents in Education, 7(1), 18-29.

OECD. (2010). PISA 2009 Results: Executive Summary (2010). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Publishing, Retrieved from

OECD. (2013). Skilled for Life?: Key Findings from the Survey of Adult Skills. Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) Publishing, Retrieved from

OECD. (2014). PISA 2012 Results in Focus: What 15-year-olds know and what they can do with what they know. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Publishing. Retrieved from

OECD. (2017a). PISA 2015 Technical Report. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Retrieved from

OECD. (2017b). PISA 2015: Technical Report. In Scaling Procedures and Construct Validation of Context Questionnaire Data: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Publishing.

OECD. (2018). PISA 2015 Results in Focus. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Retrieved from

Palani, K. (2012). Promoting reading habits and creating literate society. International Refereed Research Journal, 3(2), 90-94.

Pallant, J. (2013). SPSS Survival Manual: McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Petrova, T. I., & Alexandrov, D. A. (2015). Socio-Economic Factors for Reading Performance in PIRLS: Income Inequality and Segregation by Achievement. Retrieved from National Research University:

Ransdell, S. (2012). There’s still no free lunch: Poverty as a composite of SES predicts school-Level reading comprehension. American Behavioral Scientist, 56(7), 908-925.

Reardon, S. F. (2011). The widening academic achievement gap between the rich and the poor: New evidence and possible explanations. Whither opportunity, 91-116.

Röling, N. (2016). Innovation systems, Douglas, Douglass and beyond. In Innovation systems (pp. 202-238): The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA).

Rosser, A. (2018). Beyond access: Making Indonesia’s education system work. Retrieved from Victoria:

Sukasni, A., & Efendy, H. (2017). The problematic of education system in Indonesia and reform Agenda. International Journal of Education, 9(3), 183-199.

Torche, & Costa. (2012). Parental wealth and children's outcomes over the life-course in Brazil: A propensity score matching analysis. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 30(1), 79-96.

Von Davier, M., Gonzalez, E., & Mislevy, R. (2009). What are plausible values and why are they useful. IERI monograph series, 2, 9-36.

Weigel, D. J., Martin, S. S., & Bennett, K. K. (2010). Pathways to literacy: Connections between family assets and preschool children’s emergent literacy skills. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 8(1), 5-22.

Westat. (2007). WesVar 4.3 User’s Guide. Boulevard, United States of America: Westat

Woolley, G. (2011). Reading Comprehension. In Reading Comprehension (pp. 15-34). Netherland: Springer.

Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


  • There are currently no refbacks.