The Transformation of Science Communication in VUCA Era: Study of Media Startups Kok Bisa in Indonesia

Syora Alya Eka Putri, Ricardi S Adnan
| Abstract views: 1 | views: 0


This study analyzes the transformation of science communication conducted by media startups in the VUCA era in Indonesia. In the information age, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, people are increasingly dependent on educational needs. Nevertheless, there are challenges of information explosion that are too dynamic and less effective. As a result, media startups have implemented science communication innovations to open public access to science. Previous studies have acknowledged science communication models using visual literacy approaches and using narrative explanations. Therefore, the model faces significant challenges such as information uncertainty, establishing a science communication ecosystem, and ambiguity due to cultural change. Employing qualitative content analysis methods, this article found that media startups face the biggest challenges in developing science communication. On the other hand, the VUCA era can be a driving tool for media startups to conduct adaptive social transformation in the field of science communication.


VUCA; Science Communication; Media Startups; Information; Social Transformation

Full Text:



Agostino, D., & Arnaboldi, M. (2016). A measurement framework for assessing the contribution of social media to public engagement: An empirical analysis on Facebook. Public Management Review, 18(9), 1289-1307.

Allgaier, J., Dunwoody, S., Brossard, D., Lo, Y. Y., & Peters, H. P. (2013). Journalism and social media as means of observing the contexts of science. BioScience, 63(4), 284-287.

Almobarraz, A. (2018). Utilization of YouTube as an information resource to support university courses. The Electronic Library.

Apuke, O. D., & Omar, B. (2021). Fake news and COVID-19: modelling the predictors of fake news sharing among social media users. Telematics and Informatics, 56, 101475.

Azzahra, D.A. (2020). 10 Channel YouTube Edukasi Indonesia untuk Belajar Online. Retrieved from:

Barkin, D., & Sánchez, A. (2020). The communitarian revolutionary subject: new forms of social transformation. Third World Quarterly, 41(8), 1421-1441.

Barnes, M. L., Bodin, Ö., Guerrero, A. M., McAllister, R. R., Alexander, S. M., &

Robins, G. (2017). The social structural foundations of adaptation and transformation in social–ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 22(4).

Bennett, N., & Lemoine, G. J. (2014). What a difference a word makes: Understanding threats to performance in a VUCA world. Business Horizons, 57(3), 311-317.

Bilgihan, A., Peng, C., & Kandampully, J. (2014). Generation Y’s dining information seeking and sharing behavior on social networking sites. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.

Bowen, G. A. (2009). Document Analysis as A Qualitative Research Method. Qualitative Research Journal 9(2):27-40. DOI:10.3316/QRJ0902027.

Brossard, D. (2009). Media, scientific journals and science communication: examining the construction of scientific controversies. Public Understanding of Science, 18(3), 258-274.

Bubela, T. (2006). Science communication in transition: genomics hype, public engagement, education and commercialization pressures. Clinical genetics, 70(5), 445-450.

Bucchi, M., & Saracino, B. (2016). “Visual Science Literacy” Images and Public Understanding of Science in the Digital Age. Science Communication, 38(6), 812-819.

Bucchi, M. (2019). Facing the challenges of science communication 2.0: quality, credibility and expertise. EFSA Journal, 17, e170702.

Burns, T. W., O’Connor, D. J., & Stocklmayer, S. M. (2003). Science communication: a contemporary definition. Public understanding of science, 12(2), 183-202.

Cao, W., Zhang, X., Xu, K., & Wang, Y. (2016). Modeling online health information-seeking behavior in China: The roles of source characteristics, reward assessment, and internet self-efficacy. Health Communication, 31(9), 1105-1114.

Castells, M. (2010). Globalisation, networking, urbanisation: Reflections on the spatial dynamics of the information age. Urban Studies, 47(13), 2737-2745.

Castles, S. (2001). Studying social transformation. International political science review, 22(1), 13-32.

Chintalapati, N., & Daruri, V. S. K. (2017). Examining the use of YouTube as a Learning Resource in higher education: Scale development and validation of TAM model. Telematics and Informatics, 34(6), 853-860.

Claussen, J. E., Cooney, P. B., Defilippi, J. M., Fox, S. G., Glaser, S. M., Hawkes, E., ... & Midway, S. R. (2013). Science communication in a digital age: Social media and the American Fisheries Society. Fisheries, 38(8), 359-36

Cooke, S. J., Gallagher, A. J., Sopinka, N. M., Nguyen, V. M., Skubel, R. A., Hammerschlag, N., ... & Danylchuk, A. J. (2017). Considerations for effective science communication. FACETS, 2,

Davies, S. R., & Hara, N. (2017). Public science in a wired world: How online media are shaping science communication. Science Communication 39(5), 563-568.

Davies, S. R., Halpern, M., Horst, M., Kirby, D. S., & Lewenstein, B. (2019). Science stories as culture: experience, identity, narrative and emotion in public communication of science. Journal of Science Communication, 18(5), , A01.

DePaolo, C. A., & Wilkinson, K. (2014). Get your head into the clouds: Using word clouds for analyzing qualitative assessment data. TechTrends, 58(3), 38-44.

Derakhshan, A., Lee, L., Bhama, P., Barbarite, E., & Shaye, D. (2019). Assessing the educational quality of ‘YouTube’videos for facelifts. American Journal of Otolaryngology, 40(2), 156-159.

DetikInet. (2018). Luar Biasa! Anak Muda Indonesia dapat Penghargaan dari YouTube. Retrieved from:

Dudo, A. (2015). Scientists, the media, and the public communication of science. Sociology Compass, 9(9), 761-775.

Duhita, S. (2017). Kumparan. Belajar Asyik via YouTube dengan “Kok Bisa?”. Retrieved from:

Dunwoody, S. (2020). Science journalism and pandemic uncertainty. Media and Communication, 8(2), 471-474.

Dwivedi, Y. K., Kelly, G., Janssen, M., Rana, N. P., Slade, E. L., & Clement, M. (2018). Social Media: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Information Systems Frontiers, 20(3), 419-423.

Eise, J. (2019). What institutions can do to improve science communication. Retrieved from:

Fahnestock, J. (2019). Rhetorical Citizenship and the Science of Science Communication. Argumentation, 1-17.

Finkler, W., & Leon, B. (2019). The power of storytelling and video: a visual rhetoric for science communication. Journal of Science Communication, 18(5), A02.

Firdausi, F.A. (2018). Agar Sains Populer, Ilmuwan Perlu Belajar Komunikasi Publik. Tirto ID. Retrieved from:

Fischhoff, B. (2019). Evaluating science communication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(16), 7670-7675.

Fox, A. K., Nakhata, C., & Deitz, G. D. (2019). Eat, drink, and create content: a multi-method exploration of visual social media marketing content. International Journal of Advertising, 38(3), 450-470.

Fyfield, M., Henderson, M., & Phillips, M. (2020). Navigating four billion videos: teacher search strategies and the YouTube algorithm. Learning, Media and Technology, 1-13.

Gagnon, K., & Sabus, C. (2015). Professionalism in a digital age: opportunities and considerations for using social media in health care. Physical therapy, 95(3), 406-414.

Guedes, T. S. D. V., Wutrich, F. C. D. S., Shahini-Hoaxraj, R., & Pristina, K. (n.d). The Role of Media Pedagogy in Post-Crisis Societies within a Globalized World.

Guenther, L., Bischoff, J., Löwe, A., Marzinkowski, H., & Voigt, M. (2019). Scientific evidence and science journalism: Analysing the representation of (un) certainty in German print and online media. Journalism studies, 20(1), 40-59.

Hamid, S., Bukhari, S., Ravana, S. D., Norman, A. A., & Ijab, M. T. (2016). Role of social media in information-seeking behaviour of international students. Aslib Journal of Information Management.

Hecker, S., Luckas, M., Brandt, M., Kikillus, H., Marenbach, I., Schiele, B., ... & Wende, W. (2018). Stories can change the world–citizen science communication in practice. UCL Press.

Hunter, P. (2016). The communications gap between scientists and public. EMBO reports, 17(11), 1513-1515.

Jeko.(2015). Liputan6com. Kok Bisa?` Channel YouTube dengan Video Edukatif yang Menghibur. Retrieved from:

Jones-Jang, S. M., Hart, P. S., Feldman, L., & Moon, W. K. (2020). Diversifying or reinforcing science communication? Examining the flow of frame contagion across media platforms. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 97(1), 98-117.

Jung, I., & Lee, Y. (2015). YouTube acceptance by university educators and students: a cross-cultural perspective. Innovations in education and teaching international, 52(3), 243-253.

Kandalgaonkar, S. P. (2015). Thinking Skills for Knowledge Workers. Journal of Applied Management-Jidnyasa, 7(2), 32.

Kasih, A.P. (2020). Akademi Edukreator Buka Kelas Gratis Membuat Konten Edukasi di Youtube. Retrieved from:

Kenney, M., Rouvinen, P., & Zysman, J. (2015). The digital disruption and its societal impacts. Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, 15(1), 1-4.

Khan, M. H. (2019). Knowledge, skills and organizational capabilities for structural transformation. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 48, 42-52.

Kholifah, A.N. (2018). Sempat Ragu Bikin Konten, Channel ‘Kok Bisa?’ Raih Jutaan Subscriber. Retrieved from:

Kim, K. S., Sin, S. C. J., & He, Y. (2013). Information seeking through social media: impact of user characteristics on social media use. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50(1), 1-4.

Kocyigit, B. F., Akaltun, M. S., & Sahin, A. R. (2020). YouTube as a source of information on COVID-19 and rheumatic disease link. Clinical rheumatology, 39, 2049-2054.

Kok Bisa. (2021). Kok Bisa Company Profile 2021.

Lawi, G.F.K. (2020). Startup Edukasi dan Pelatihan Makin Bersinar di Masa Pandemi. Retrieved from:

Lee, C. S., Osop, H., Goh, D. H. L., & Kelni, G. (2017). Making sense of comments on YouTube educational videos: a self-directed learning perspective. Online Information Review.

Letaifa, S. B., Edvardsson, B., & Tronvoll, B. (2016). The role of social platforms in transforming service ecosystems. Journal of Business Research, 69(5), 1933-1938.

Lievrouw, L. A. (2010). Social media and the production of knowledge: a return to little science?. Social Epistemology, 24(3), 219-237.

Liu, P. L. (2020). COVID-19 information seeking on digital media and preventive behaviors: the mediation role of worry. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 23(10), 677-682.

López-Goñi, I., & Sánchez-Angulo, M. (2018). Social networks as a tool for science communication and public engagement: focus on Twitter. FEMS Microbiology letters, 365(2), fnx246.

Mansell, R. (2010). The life and times of the information society. Prometheus, 28(2), 165-186.

Michalovich, A., & Hershkovitz, A. (2020). Assessing YouTube science news’ credibility: The impact of web-search on the role of video, source, and user attributes. Public Understanding of Science, 29(4), 376-391.

Moghavvemi, S., Sulaiman, A., Jaafar, N. I., & Kasem, N. (2018). Social media as a complementary learning tool for teaching and learning: The case of youtube. The International Journal of Management Education, 16(1), 37-42.

Naeem, M. (2019). Uncovering the role of social media and cross-platform applications as tools for knowledge sharing. VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems.

Noonan, M., Richter, G., Durham, L., & Pierce, E. (2017). Learning and the digital workplace: What? So what? Now what?. Strategic HR Review.

Padian, K. (2018). Narrative and “anti-narrative” in science: how scientists tell stories, and don’t. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 58(6), 1224-1234.

Perry, A., Rahim, E., & Davis, B. (2018). Startup Success Trends in Small Business Beyond Five-Years: A Qualitative Research Study. International Journal of Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Corporate Social Responsibility (IJSECSR), 3(1), 1-16.

Peters, H. P. (2013). Gap between science and media revisited: Scientists as public communicators. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(Supplement 3), 14102-14109.

Picken, J. C. (2017). From startup to scalable enterprise: Laying the foundation. Business Horizons, 60(5), 587-595.

Popova, N., Moiseenko, Y., & Beavitt, T. (2017). Conformity in modern science: An engine of societal transformation?. Changing Societies & Personalities, 1(3), 237-258.

Qiu, L., Tang, Q., & Whinston, A. B. (2015). Two formulas for success in social media: Learning and network effects. Journal of Management Information Systems, 32(4), 78-108.

Rapp, A. K., Healy, M. G., Charlton, M. E., Keith, J. N., Rosenbaum, M. E., & Kapadia, M. R. (2016). YouTube is the most frequently used educational video source for surgical preparation. Journal of surgical education, 73(6), 1072-1076.

Redaksi Antara. (2020). Akademi edukreator, wadah bagi kreator tingkatkan kualitas pendidikan. Retrieved from:

Redaksi The Jakarta Post. (2020). ‘Akademi Edukreator’ initiative aims to inspire teachers, creators in Indonesia. Retrieved from: (2020). Kemendikbud Akui Konten Pendidikan Terbatas Selama Covid-19. Retrieved from:

Rundjan, R. (2018). Penting Untuk Menakar Komunikasi Sains di Indonesia. DW. Retrieved from:

Salmon, R. A., Priestley, R. K., & Goven, J. (2017). The reflexive scientist: an approach to transforming public engagement. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 7(1), 53-68.

Sandi, R. (2020). Lewat Inisiasi ‘Akademi Edukreator’, Kok Bisa Ajak Kreator Kembangkan Konten Edukasi di Tengah Pandemi. Retrieved from:

Schick, A., Hobson, P. R., & Ibisch, P. L. (2017). Conservation and sustainable development in a VUCA world: the need for a systemic and ecosystem-based approach. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability, 3(4), e01267.

Schmidt, T. R., & Lawrence, R. G. (2020). Engaged Journalism and News Work: A Sociotechnical Analysis of Organizational Dynamics and Professional Challenges. Journalism Practice, 14(5), 518-536.

Schreier, M. (2012). Qualitative content analysis in practice. Sage publications.

Segev, E., & Sharon, A. J. (2017). Temporal patterns of scientific information-seeking on Google and Wikipedia. Public understanding of science, 26(8), 969-985.

Shliakhovchuk, E. (2019). After cultural literacy: new models of intercultural competency for life and work in a VUCA world. Educational Review, 1-22.

Soroya, S. H., Farooq, A., Mahmood, K., Isoaho, J., & Zara, S. E. (2021). From information seeking to information avoidance: Understanding the health information behavior during a global health crisis. Information Processing & Management, 58(2), 102440.

Spezi, V. (2016). Is information-seeking behavior of doctoral students changing?: A review of the literature (2010–2015). New review of academic librarianship, 22(1), 78-106.

Teece, D., Peteraf, M., & Leih, S. (2016). Dynamic capabilities and organizational agility: Risk, uncertainty, and strategy in the innovation economy. California management review, 58(4), 13-35.

Tenkasi, R. V. (2018). Re-visting the past to re-imagine the future of organization development and change. Organ Dev. J, 36(4), 61-75.

Umeozor, S. N. (2019). Information networking and its application in the digital era with illustration from the University of Port Harcourt Library. International Journal of Knowledge Content Development & Technology, 9(2), 33-44.

University of People. (n.d). Best Educational YouTube Channels for College Students. Retrieved from:

van der Bles, A. M., van der Linden, S., Freeman, A. L., Mitchell, J., Galvao, A. B., Zaval, L., & Spiegelhalter, D. J. (2019). Communicating uncertainty about facts, numbers and science. Royal Society open science, 6(5), 181870.

Wankel, C. (2016). Reframing management education with social media. Organization Management Journal, 13(4), 202-213.

We Are Social. (2020). Digital 2020 Indonesia.

Welbourne, D. J., & Grant, W. J. (2016). Science communication on YouTube: Factors that affect channel and video popularity. Public understanding of science, 25(6), 706-718.

Wicaksono, B.S. (2018). Pentingnya Sains Dunia Digital dalam Hidup Masyarakat. Retrieved from:

Yang, Y., & Hobbs, J. E. (2020). The power of stories: Narratives and information framing effects in science communication. American Journal of Agricultural Economics.

Zolkepli, I. A., & Kamarulzaman, Y. (2015). Social media adoption: The role of media needs and innovation characteristics. Computers in Human Behavior, 43, 189-209.

Zulfikar, M. (2020). Selama pandemi COVID-19, Kemendikbud akui konten pendidikan terbatas. Retrieved from:

Copyright (c) 2021 Syora Alya Eka Putri, Ricardi S Adnan
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


  • There are currently no refbacks.